Duque's pro-business platform and hard line on security appealed to voters in a runoff that pitted hard right against hard left.
Loose laws let scores of charters create policies that favor white students.
The Aquarius was stuck off the coast of Sicily last Saturday when Italy refused it permission to dock and demanded that Malta do so. Malta also refused.
The legislation could be voted on next week in the House, along with another proposal backed by conservatives.
While most of the island finally has power back, hundreds of schools are set to close, and Maria's true death toll is still a mystery.